Resonance is a relatively large selective response of an object or a system that vibrates in step or phase, with an externally applied oscillatory force. Resonance was first investigated in acoustical systems such as musical instruments and the human voice. An example of acoustical resonance is the vibration induced in a violin or piano string of a given pitch when a musical note of the same pitch is sung or played nearby.
The concept of resonance has been extended by analogy to certain mechanical and electrical phenomena. Mechanical resonance, such as that produced in bridges by wind or by marching soldiers, is known to have built up to proportions large enough to be destructive, as in the case of the destruction of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940. Spacecraft, aircraft, and surface vehicles must be designed so that the vibrations caused by their engines or by their movement through air are kept to a safe minimum.
Excerpt from the Encyclopedia Britannica without permission.