Thermodynamics :

A central consideration of thermodynamics is that any physical system, whether or not it can exchange energy and material with its environment, will spontaneously approach a stable condition (equilibrium) that can be described by specifying its properties, such as pressure, temperature, or chemical composition. If the external constraints are changed (for example, if the system is allowed to expand), then these properties will generally alter. The science of thermodynamics attempts to describe mathematically these changes and to predict the equilibrium conditions of the system.

Excerpt from the Encyclopedia Britannica without permission.