Apollo Program:

The Apollo program included a large number of uncrewed test missions and 12 crewed missions: three Earth orbiting missions (Apollo 7, 9 and Apollo-Soyuz), two lunar orbiting missions (Apollo 8 and 10), a lunar swingby (Apollo 13), and six Moon landing missions (Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17). Two astronauts from each of these six missions walked on the Moon (Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, Charles Conrad, Alan Bean, Alan Shepard, Edgar Mitchell, David Scott, James Irwin, John Young, Charles Duke, Gene Cernan, and Harrison Schmitt), the only humans to have set foot on another solar system body. Total funding for the Apollo program was approximately $20,443,600,000.


Spacecraft and Subsystems :

As the name implies, the Command and Service Module (CSM) was comprised of two distinct units: the Command Module (CM), which housed the crew, spacecraft operations systems, and re-entry equipment, and the Service Module (SM) which carried most of the consumables (oxygen, water, helium, fuel cells, and fuel) and the main propulsion system. The total length of the two modules attached was 11.0 meters with a maximum diameter of 3.9 meters. Block II CSM's were used for all the crewed Apollo missions. The Apollo 11 CSM mass of 28,801 kg was the launch mass including propellants and expendables, of this the Command Module (CM 107) had a mass of 5557 kg and the Service Module (SM 107) 23,244 kg.

Telecommunications included voice, television, data, and tracking and ranging subsystems for communications between astronauts, CM, LM, and Earth. Voice contact was provided by an S-band uplink and downlink system. Tracking was done through a unified S-band transponder. A high gain steerable S-band antenna consisting of four 79-cm diameter parabolic dishes was mounted on a folding boom at the aft end of the SM. Two VHF scimitar antennas were also mounted on the SM. There was also a VHF recovery beacon mounted in the CM. The CSM environmental control system regulated cabin atmosphere, pressure, temperature, carbon dioxide, odors, particles, and ventilation and controlled the temperature range of the electronic equipment.

The CM was a conical pressure vessel with a maximum diameter of 3.9 m at its base and a height of 3.65 m. It was made of an aluminum honeycomb sandwich bonded between sheet aluminum alloy. The base of the CM consisted of a heat shield made of brazed stainless steel honeycomb filled with a phenolic epoxy resin as an ablative material and varied in thickness from 1.8 to 6.9 cm. At the tip of the cone was a hatch and docking assembly designed to mate with the lunar module. The CM was divided into three compartments. The forward compartment in the nose of the cone held the three 25.4 m diameter main parachutes, two 5 m drogue parachutes, and pilot mortar chutes for Earth landing. The aft compartment was situated around the base of the CM and contained propellant tanks, reaction control engines, wiring, and plumbing.

The crew compartment comprised most of the volume of the CM, approximately 6.17 cubic meters of space. Three astronaut couches were lined up facing forward in the center of the compartment. A large access hatch was situated above the center couch. A short access tunnel led to the docking hatch in the CM nose. The crew compartment held the controls, displays, navigation equipment and other systems used by the astronauts. The CM had five windows: one in the access hatch, one next to each astronaut in the two outer seats, and two forward-facing rendezvous windows. Five silver/zinc-oxide batteries provided power after the CM and SM detached, three for re-entry and after landing and two for vehicle separation and parachute deployment. The CM had twelve 420 N nitrogen tetroxide/hydrazine reaction control thrusters. The CM provided the re-entry capability at the end of the mission after separation from the Service Module.

The SM was a cylinder 3.9 meters in diameter and 7.6 m long which was attached to the back of the CM. The outer skin of the SM was formed of 2.5 cm thick aluminum honeycomb panels. The interior was divided by milled aluminum radial beams into six sections around a central cylinder. At the back of the SM mounted in the central cylinder was a gimbal mounted re-startable hypergolic liquid propellant 91,000 N engine and cone shaped engine nozzle. Attitude control was provided by four identical banks of four 450 N reaction control thrusters each spaced 90 degrees apart around the forward part of the SM.

The six sections of the SM held three 31-cell hydrogen oxygen fuel cells which provided 28 volts, two cryogenic oxygen and two cryogenic hydrogen tanks, four tanks for the main propulsion engine, two for fuel and two for oxidizer, and the subsystems the main propulsion unit. Two helium tanks were mounted in the central cylinder. Environmental control radiator panels were spaced around the top of the cylinder and electrical power system radiators near the bottom.

The Ascent Stage of the Lunar Module (LM) is the manned portion of the space vehicle. It contains a crew compartment, hypergolic ascent engine, an aft equipment bay and tank section, and 16 reaction control engines. The crew compartment is used as an operations center by the astronauts during their lunar stay. Lunar descent, lunar landing, lunar launch, and rendezvous and docking with the Command and Service Module (CSM) are also controlled from this compartment.

All or part of the following subsystems are contained in the Ascent Stage:

The unmanned Descent Stage contains equipment essential for landing on the lunar surface and serves as a platform for launching the Ascent Stage after completion of the lunar mission. In addition to the descent engine and its pressurization and propel- lant components, the Descent Stage houses the landing radar, electrical power and pyrotechnics components, and the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). It also contains outriggers that extend from the ends of the structural beams. These outriggers have provisions for:

  • Attaching the cantilever-type landing gear.
  • Locating the Lunar Module within the shroud of the Saturn V aerodynamic shell.

    The Ascent Stage structure consists of the following subassemblies: front face, cabin skin, mid section and aft equipment bay. The front face is mechanically assembled from 10 welded and machined sections. After a sealing and curing operation, the outer flange contour is machined for accurate mating to the cabin skin subassembly. The installation of secondary structure (stringers, shelves, brackets, etc.) completes the front face assembly.

    The cabin skin subassembly is fabricated from formed chemmilled skin panels that are welded and mechanically fastened. Sealing of the mechanical joints, trimming of the forward edge to match the front face contour, and the addition of formed longerons and stringers complete the operation for this assembly.

    The mid section, the largest of the subassemblies in the Ascent Stage, consists basically of two machined bulkheads, an upper deck tunnel weldment, a lower (engine) deck weldment and chem-milled skins. The mid section is mechanically joined with the front face and cabin skin subassembly and sealed to form the cabin pressure shell of the Ascent Stage.

    Cold rails, chem-milled beams, struts, and machined fittings comprise the major structural components in the aft equipment bay. The attachment of this subassembly to the cabin pressure shell completes the Ascent Stage structure.

    The Descent Stage structure consists primarily of machined parts and chem-milled panel/stiffener assemblies that are mechanically fastened. Fabrication of the Descent Stage begins with the joining of the machined picture frames and the chem-milled panel/stiffener assemblies to form the engine compartment. After the outrigger bulkhead assemblies are attached to the engine compartment with machined cap strips, the eight remaining panel/stiffener assemblies, the upper and lower machined decks, and the machined interstage fittings are added to complete the Descent Stage structure.

    The cantilever-type landing gear is attached externally to the Descent Stage and folds inward to fit within the shroud of the Saturn V aerodynamic shell. It consists of four sets of legs connected to outriggers that extend from the ends of the Descent Stage structural beams. Each landing gear consists of a primary strut and foot pad, a drive-out mechanism, two secondary struts, two down-lock mechanisms, and a truss. The struts are machined aluminum with machined fittings mechanically attached at the ends. The foot pads consist of inner and outer layers of spun aluminum that are bonded to honeycomb core. The formed aluminum tube probes on the foot pads are each equipped with a sensing device. The side braces are made of swaged tubing.


    Apollo 7 and 9:

    Apollo 7 was the first manned flight of the Apollo spacecraft with astronauts Walter Schirra, Jr, Donn Eisele, and Walter Cunningham on board. It performed earth orbit operations. The spacecraft mass of 14,781 kg is the mass of the CSM including propellants and expendables.

    Apollo 7 splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean on 22 October 1968 at 11:11:48 UT (7:11:48 a.m. EDT) after a mission elapsed time of 260 hrs, 9 mins, 3 secs. The splashdown point was 27 deg 32 min N, 64 deg 04 min W, 200 nautical miles SSW of Bermuda and 13 km (8 mi) north of the recovery ship USS Essex.

    Apollo 9, which was composed of a command module (CM), a command service module (CSM), a lunar module (LM), and an instrument unit (IU), was launched by a Saturn V rocket on March 3, 1969, from Cape Kennedy into a nominal orbit of 102.3 by 103.9 n.m. (166 by 166 km). The crew were commander J.R. McDivitt, CM pilot D.R. Scott, and LM pilot R.L. Schweikart. The vehicle rocket had three stages, S-IC, S-II, and S-IVB. The CM, a cone-shaped craft about 390 CM in diameter at the large end, served as a command, control, and communications center. Supplemented by the SM, it provided all life support elements for the three crewmen. The spacecraft mass of 26,801 kg is the mass of the CSM including propellants and expendables. The CM was capable of attitude control about three axes and some lateral lift translation. It permitted LM attachment and CM/LM ingress and egress and served as a buoyant vessel at sea. The CSM provided the main propulsion and maneuvering capability. It was jettisoned just before CM reentry. The CSM was a cylinder 390 cm in diameter. The LM was a two-stage vehicle that accommodated two men and could transport them to the lunar surface. On Apollo 9 the CM and LM were separated and some maneuvers, including docking, were completed, but the LM did not land because this was an earth-circling mission. It had its own propulsion, communication, and life support systems. The LM (ID 1969-018C) was jettisoned into Earth orbit before the CM re-entry. The orbit decayed on 23 October 1981. All systems on all spacecraft worked nearly normally during the mission.

    Apollo 9 splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean on 13 March 1969 at 17:00:54 UT (12:00:54 p.m. EST) after a mission elapsed time of 241 hrs, 0 mins, 54 secs. The splashdown point was 23 deg 15 min N, 67 deg 56 min W, 180 miles east of Bahamas and within sight of the recovery ship USS Guadalcanal.


    Apollo 8:

    This spacecraft was the first of the Apollo series to successfully orbit the moon, and the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth's gravity and reach the Moon. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both farside and nearside, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. Additionally, six live television transmission sessions were done by the crew during the mission, including the famous Christmas Eve broadcast in which the astronauts read from the book of Genesis. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved. The flight carried a three man crew: Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James A. Lovell, Jr., and Lunar Module Pilot William A. Anders.

    The Apollo 8 spacecraft consisted of a command module similar to Apollo 7 except that the forward pressure and ablative hatches were replaced by a combined forward hatch, which would be used for transfer to the Lunar Module on later missions. The spacecraft mass of 28,817 kg is the mass of the CSM including propellants and expendables. A Lunar Module was not used on the Apollo 8 mission but a Lunar Module Test Article which was equivalent in mass (9027 kg) to a Lunar Module was mounted in the spacecraft/launch vehicle adapter as ballast for mass loading purposes.

    The spacecraft was launched on December 21, 1968 at 12:51:00 UT (7:51 a.m. EST), and was placed in a 190.6 km x 183.2 km Earth parking orbit with a period of 88.2 minutes and an inclination of 32.51 degrees. At 15:41:37 UT a third-stage burn injected the Apollo spacecraft into translunar trajectory. Orbit insertion took place on 24 December at 09:59:20 UT into an elliptical 310.6 km by 111.2 km lunar orbit. Two orbits later a second burn placed Apollo 8 into a near-circular 110.4 by 112.3 km orbit for eight orbits. The transearth injection burn took place on 25 December at 06:10:16 UT after a total of 10 lunar orbits.

    Apollo 8 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 27 December 1968 at 15:51:42 UT (10:51:42 a.m. EST) after a mission elapsed time of 147 hrs, 0 mins, 42 secs. The splashdown point was 8 deg 7.5 min N, 165 deg 1.2 min W, 1,000 miles SSW of Hawaii and 5 km (3 mi) from the recovery ship USS Yorktown. The Apollo 8 Command Module is on display at the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, Illinois.


    Apollo 10:

    This spacecraft was the second Apollo mission to orbit the Moon, and the first to travel to the Moon with the full Apollo spacecraft, consisting of the Command and Service Module (CSM-106, "Charlie Brown") and the Lunar Module (LM-4, "Snoopy"). The spacecraft mass of 28,834 kg is the mass of the CSM including propellants and expendables. The LM mass including propellants was 13,941 kg. The primary objectives of the mission were to demonstrate crew, space vehicle, and mission support facilities during a manned lunar mission and to evaluate LM performance in cislunar and lunar environment. The mission was a full "dry run" for the Apollo 11 mission, in which all operations except the actual lunar landing were performed. The flight carried a three man crew: Commander Thomas P. Stafford, Command Module (CM) Pilot John W. Young, and Lunar Module (LM) Pilot Eugene A. Cernan.

    After launch, the spacecraft was inserted into a 189.9 km x 184.4 km Earth parking orbit at 17:00:54 UT, followed by translunar injection after 1 1/2 orbits at 19:28:21 UT. The CSM separated from the Saturn V 3rd stage (S-IVB) at 19:51:42 UT, transposed, and docked with the LM at 20:06:37. After a three day cruise, Apollo 10 entered an initial 315.5 km x 110.4 km lunar orbit on 21 May 1969 at 20:44:54 UT, using a 356 sec. SPS burn. A second SPS burn lasting 19.3 seconds circularized the orbit to 113.9 km x 109.1 km.

    On 22 May Stafford and Cernan entered the LM and fired the SM reaction control thrusters to separate the LM from the CSM at 19:36:17 UT. The LM was put into an orbit to allow low altitude passes over the lunar surface, the closest approach bringing it to within 14 km of the Moon. All systems on the LM were tested during the separation including communications, propulsion, attitude control, and radar. Numerous close-up photographs of the Moon's surface, in particular the planned Apollo landing sites, were taken. The LM descent stage was jettisoned into lunar orbit. The LM and CSM rendezvous and redocking occurred 8 hours after separation at 03:22 UT on 23 May.

    Later on May 23 the LM ascent stage was jettisoned into solar orbit, and on 24 May at 10:25:29 UT after 31 lunar orbits the CSM rockets fired for trans-earth injection. CM-SM separation took place on 26 May at 16:22:26 UT and Apollo 10 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 26 May 1969 at 16:52:23 UT (12:52:23 p.m. EDT) after a mission elapsed time of 192 hrs, 3 mins, 23 secs. The splashdown point was 15 deg 2 min S, 164 deg 39 min W, 400 miles east of American Samoa and 5.5 km (3.4 mi) from the recovery ship USS Princeton.

    All systems on both spacecraft functioned nominally, the only exception being an anomaly in the automatic abort guidance system aboard the LM. In addition to extensive photography of the lunar surface from both the LM and CSM, television images were taken and transmitted to Earth. The Apollo 10 Command Module "Charlie Brown" is on display at the Science Museum, London, England.


    Apollo 11:

    Apollo 11 was the first mission in which humans walked on the lunar surface and returned to Earth. On 20 July 1969 two astronauts (Apollo 11 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and LM pilot Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin Jr.) landed in Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility) on the Moon in the Lunar Module (LM) while the Command and Service Module (CSM) (with CM pilot Michael Collins) continued in lunar orbit. During their stay on the Moon, the astronauts set up scientific experiments, took photographs, and collected lunar samples. The LM took off from the Moon on 21 July and the astronauts returned to Earth on 24 July.

    Apollo 11 Landing

    After launch on Saturn V SA-504 on 16 July 1969 at 13:32 UT (9:32 a.m. EDT) from pad 39A of Kennedy Space Center, Apollo 11 entered Earth orbit. After 1 1/2 Earth orbits, the S-IVB stage was re-ignited at 16:16:16 UT for a translunar injection burn of 5 minutes, 48 seconds putting the spacecraft on course for the Moon. The CSM separated from the S-IVB stage containing the LM 33 minutes later, turned around and docked with the LM at 16:56:03 UT. About an hour and 15 minutes later the S-IVB stage was injected into heliocentric orbit. During translunar coast a color TV transmission was made from Apollo 11 and on 17 July a 3-second mid-course correction burn of the main engine was performed. Lunar orbit insertion was achieved on 19 July at 17:21:50 UT by a retrograde firing of the main engine for 357.5 seconds while the spacecraft was behind the Moon and out of contact with Earth. A later 17 second burn circularized the orbit. On 20 July Armstrong and Aldrin entered the LM for final checkout. At 18:11:53 the LM and CSM separated. After a visual inspection by Collins, the LM descent engine fired for 30 seconds at 19:08 UT, putting the craft into a descent orbit with a closest approach 14.5 km above the Moon's surface. At 20:05 the LM descent engine fired for 756.3 seconds and descent to the lunar surface began.

    The LM landed at 20:17:40 UT (4:17:40 p.m. EDT) in Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility), Armstrong reporting, "Houston, Tranquility Base here - the Eagle has landed." Armstrong stepped onto the lunar surface at 02:56:15 UT on 21 July (10:56:15 p.m. July 20 EDT) stating, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind", and Aldrin followed 19 minutes later. The astronauts deployed the EASEP and other instruments, took photographs, and collected 21.7 kg of lunar rock and soil. The astronauts traversed a total distance of about 250 meters. The EVA ended at 5:11:13 UT when the astronauts returned to the LM and closed the hatch.

    The LM lifted off from the Moon at 17:54:01 UT on 21 July after 21 hours, 36 minutes on the lunar surface. After docking with the CSM at 21:34:00 UT, the LM was jettisoned into lunar orbit at 00:01:01 UT on 22 July. Transearth injection began at 04:54:42 UT on 22 July with a 2 1/2 minute firing of the CSM main engine. A mid-course correction was made later on 22 July. The CM separated from the SM at 16:21:13 UT on 24 July. Apollo 11 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 24 July 1969 at 16:50:35 UT (12:50:35 p.m. EDT) after a mission elapsed time of 195 hrs, 18 mins, 35 secs. The splashdown point was 13 deg 19 min N, 169 deg 9 min W, 400 miles SSW of Wake Island and 24 km (15 mi) from the recovery ship USS Hornet.

    The primary mission goal of landing astronauts on the Moon and returning them to Earth was achieved. Armstrong was a civilian on his second spaceflight (he'd previously flown on Gemini 8), Aldrin was a USAF Colonel on his second spaceflight (Gemini 12), Collins was a USAF Lt. Colonel also on his second flight (Gemini 10).


    Apollo 12:

    Apollo 12 was the second mission in which humans walked on the lunar surface and returned to Earth. On 19 November 1969 two astronauts (Apollo 12 Commander Charles P. "Pete" Conrad and LM Pilot Alan L. Bean) landed in Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms) on the Moon in the Lunar Module (LM) while the Command and Service Module (CSM) (with CM pilot Richard F. Gordon) continued in lunar orbit. During their stay on the Moon, the astronauts set up scientific experiments, took photographs, examined the nearby Surveyor 3 spacecraft which had landed on the Moon 2 1/2 years earlier and removed pieces for later examination on Earth, and collected lunar samples on two moonwalk EVA's. The LM took off from the Moon on 20 November and the astronauts returned to Earth on 24 November.

    Launch took place under cloudy, rain-swept skies on Saturn V SA-507 on 14 November 1969 at 16:22:00 UT (11:22:00 a.m. EST) from Pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center. The spacecraft was struck by lightning 36 seconds after launch and again 52 seconds after launch, which momentarily shut off electrical power and cut out telemetry contact. Power was automatically switched to battery backup while the crew restored the primary power system. There were no further problems with the power system and the spacecraft entered planned Earth parking orbit at 11 minutes 44 seconds after liftoff. After 1 1/2 orbits the S-IVB stage was re-ignited at 19:15:14 UT for a translunar injection burn of 5 min. 45 sec. putting the spacecraft on course for the Moon. The CSM separated from the S-IVB stage containing the LM 25 minutes later, turned around and docked with the LM at 19:48:53 UT. The S-IVB stage was then jettisoned into Earth orbit instead of planned heliocentric orbit due to error in the instrument unit. During lunar coast, the LM was checked out to ensure no electrical damage had been caused by the lightning. A midcourse correction was made on 16 November at 02:15 UT. A six minute SPS burn on 18 November at 03:47:23 UT put the Apollo 12 into lunar orbit. Two orbits later a second burn circularized the orbit. Conrad and Bean entered the LM and it separated from the CSM at 04:16:03 UT on 19 November. The LM descent engine fired for 29 seconds at 05:47 UT, and the LM landed in Oceanus Procellarum near the rim of Surveyor crater at 06:54:35 UT. Conrad and Bean performed two surface EVA's, one on 19 November and one on 20 November, during which an Apollo lunar surface experiments package (ALSEP) was placed on the lunar surface, 34.4 kg of samples of the lunar terrain were acquired, various photographs were exposed by the astronauts during lunar surface activities, and parts were taken from the Surveyor 3 spacecraft for examination.

    The LM lifted off from the Moon on 20 November at 14:25:47 UT after 31 hours 31 minutes on the lunar surface. After docking with the CSM at 17:58:22 UT, the LM was jettisoned at 20:21:30 and intentionally crashed into the Moon creating the first recorded artificial moonquake. Transearth injection began at 20:49:16 UT on 21 November with a firing of the CSM main engine. A mid-course correction was made on 22 November.

    The CM separated from the SM on 24 November at 20:29:21. Apollo 12 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 24 November 1969 at 20:58:24 UT (3:58:24 p.m. EST) after a mission elapsed time of 244 hrs, 36 mins, 24 secs. The splashdown point was 15 deg 47 min S, 165 deg 9 min W, near American Samoa and 6.9 km (4.3 mi) from the recovery ship USS Hornet.

    The primary mission goals of an extensive series of lunar exploration tasks, deployment of the ALSEP, and demonstration of the ability to remain and work on the surface of the Moon for an extended period were achieved.


    Apollo 13:

    Apollo 13 was intended to be the third mission to carry humans to the surface of the Moon, but an explosion of one of the oxygen tanks and resulting damage to other systems resulted in the mission being aborted before the planned lunar landing could take place. The crew, commander James A. Lovell, Jr., command module pilot John L. Swigert, Jr., and lunar module pilot Fred W. Haise Jr., were returned safely to Earth on 17 April 1970.

    Apollo 13 was launched on Saturn V SA-508 on 11 April 1970 at 19:13:00 UT (02:13:00 p.m. EST) from pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center. During second stage boost the center engine of the S-II stage cut off 132 seconds early, causing the remaining four engines to burn 34 seconds longer than normal. The velocity after S-II burn was still lower than planned by 68 m/sec, so the S-IVB orbital insertion burn at 19:25:40 was 9 seconds longer than planned. Translunar injection took place at 21:54:47 UT, CSM/S-IVB separation at 22:19:39 UT, and CSM-LM docking at 22:32:09 UT. The S-IVB auxiliary propulsive system burned at 01:13 UT on 12 April for 217 seconds to put the S-IVB into a lunar impact trajectory. (It impacted the lunar surface on 14 April at 01:09:41.0 at 2.75 S, 27.86 W with a velocity of 2.58 km/s at a 76 degrees angle from horizontal.) A 3.4 second mid-course correction was made at 01:27 UT on 13 April.

    A television broadcast was made from Apollo 13 from 02:24 UT to 02:59 UT on 14 April and a few minutes later, at 03:06:18 UT Jack Swigert turned the fans on to stir oxygen tanks 1 and 2 in the service module. The Accident Review Board concluded that wires which had been damaged during pre-flight testing in oxygen tank no. 2 shorted and the teflon insulation caught fire. The fire spread within the tank, raising the pressure until at 3:07:53 UT on 14 April (10:07:53 EST 13 April; 55:54:53 mission elapsed time) oxygen tank no. 2 exploded, damaging oxygen tank no. 1 and the interior of the service module and blowing off the bay no. 4 cover. With the oxygen stores depleted, the command module was unusable, the mission had to be aborted, and the crew transferred to the lunar module and powered down the command module.

    At 08:43 UT a mid-course maneuver (11.6 m/s delta V) was performed using the lunar module descent propulsion system (LMDPS) to place the spacecraft on a free-return trajectory which would take it around the Moon and return to Earth, targeted at the Indian Ocean at 03:13 UT 18 April. After rounding the Moon another LMDPS burn at 02:40:39 UT 15 April for 263.4 seconds produced a differential velocity of 262 m/s and shortened the estimated return time to 18:06 UT 17 April with splashdown in the mid-Pacific. To conserve power and other consumables the lunar module was powered down except for environmental control, communications, and telemetry, and passive thermal control was established. At 04:32 UT on 16 April a 15 second LMDPS burn at 10% throttle produced a 2.3 m/s velocity decrease and raised the entry flight path angle to -6.52 degrees. Following this the crew partially powered up the CSM. On 17 April at 12:53 UT a 22.4 second LMDPS burn put the flight path entry angle at -6.49 degrees.

    The service module, which had been kept attached to the command module to protect the heat shield, was jettisoned on 17 April at 13:15:06 UT and the crew took photographs of the damage. The command module was powered up and lunar module was jettisoned at 16:43:02 UT. Any parts of the lunar module which survived atmospheric re-entry, including the SNAP-27 generator, planned to power the ALSEP apparatus on the lunar surface and containing 3.9 kg of plutonium, fell into the Pacific Ocean northeast of New Zealand. Apollo 13 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 17 April 1970 at 18:07:41 UT (1:07:41 p.m. EST) after a mission elapsed time of 142 hrs, 54 mins, 41 secs. The splashdown point was 21 deg 38 min S, 165 deg 22 min W, SE of American Samoa and 6.5 km (4 mi) from the recovery ship USS Iwo Jima.


    Apollo 14:

    Apollo 14 was the third mission in which humans walked on the lunar surface and returned to Earth. On 5 February 1971 two astronauts (Apollo 14 Commander Alan B. Shepard, Jr. and LM pilot Edgar D. Mitchell) landed near Fra Mauro crater on the Moon in the Lunar Module (LM) while the Command and Service Module (CSM) (with CM pilot Stuart A. Roosa) continued in lunar orbit. During their stay on the Moon, the astronauts set up scientific experiments, took photographs, and collected lunar samples. The LM took off from the Moon on 6 February and the astronauts returned to Earth on 9 February.

    After a delay of 40 minutes, 2 seconds due to clouds and rain, Apollo 14 was launched into Earth parking orbit on 31 January 1971 at 21:03:02 UT (4:03:02 p.m. EST) from pad 39A of Kennedy Space Center on Saturn V SA-509. Earth orbit insertion occurred at 21:14:51 UT followed by translunar injection at 23:37:34. An early first mid-course correction was made to make up for the launch delay so the spacecraft would arrive at the Moon on schedule. The CSM separated from the S-IVB stage containing the LM at 00:05:31 UT on 1 February. Five attempts were made to dock the CSM and the LM, all unsuccessful because the catches on the docking ring did not release. The sixth attempt, at 02:00:02 UT, was successful and no further problems with the docking mechanism occurred. The S-IVB stage was released into a lunar impact trajectory. (It impacted the lunar surface on 4 February at 07:40:55.4 UT at 8.09 S, 26.02 W with a velocity of 2.54 km/s at a 69 degree angle from the horizontal.) A second mid-course correction was made on 2 February and a third on 4 February. Lunar orbit insertion occurred at 06:59:43 UT on 4 February.

    The LM, with Shepard and Mitchell aboard, separated from the CSM, piloted by Roosa, at 04:50:44 UT on 5 February and landed at 09:18:11 UT in the hilly upland region 24 km north of the rim of Fra Mauro crater at 3.6 S, 17.5 W. The astronauts made two moonwalk EVA's totaling 9 hours, 23 minutes, one on 5 February and one on 6 February, during which the Apollo lunar surface experiments package (ALSEP) was placed on the surface of the moon, 42.9 kg of lunar samples were acquired, and photographs were taken.

    At the end of the second EVA Shepard hit two golf balls. Experiments were also performed from the CSM in equatorial orbit.

    The LM lifted off from the Moon at 18:48:42 UT on 6 February after 33 hours, 31 minutes on the lunar surface. After the LM docked with the CSM at 20:35:53 UT the lunar samples and other equipment were transferred from the LM and the LM was jettisoned at 22:48:00 UT. It impacted the Moon on 8 February 00:45:25.7 UT at 3.42 S, 19.67 W. Transearth injection began at 01:39:04 UT on 7 February. One small mid-course correction was made on 8 February during transearth coast. The CM separated from the SM at 20:35:44 UT on 9 February. Apollo 14 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 9 February 1971 at 21:05:00 UT (4:05:00 p.m. EST) after a mission elapsed time of 216 hrs, 1 min, 58 secs. The splashdown point was 27 deg 1 min S, 172 deg 39 min W, 765 nautical miles south of American Samoa. The astronauts and capsule were picked up by the recovery ship USS New Orleans. This was the last Apollo mission in which the astronauts were put in quarantine after their return.

    The primary mission goals of deployment of the ALSEP and other scientific experiments, collection of lunar samples, surface photography, and photography, radio science and other scientific experiments from orbit were achieved with the exception of the full coverage planned for the Hycon camera.


    Lunar Rover:

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) was an electric vehicle designed to operate in the low-gravity vacuum of the Moon and to be capable of traversing the lunar surface, allowing the Apollo astronauts to extend the range of their surface extravehicular activities. Three LRVs were driven on the Moon, one on Apollo 15 by astronauts David Scott and Jim Irwin, one on Apollo 16 by John Young and Charles Duke, and one on Apollo 17 by Gene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt. Each rover was used on three traverses, one per day over the three day course of each mission. On Apollo 15 the LRV was driven a total of 27.8 km in 3 hours, 2 minutes of driving time. The longest single traverse was 12.5 km and the maximum range from the LM was 5.0 km. On Apollo 16 the vehicle traversed 26.7 km in 3 hours 26 minutes of driving. The longest traverse was 11.6 km and the LRV reached a distance of 4.5 km from the LM. On Apollo 17 the rover went 35.9 km in 4 hours 26 minutes total drive time. The longest traverse was 20.1 km and the greatest range from the LM was 7.6 km.

    It looked like a golf cart, or a stripped-down dune buggy, but was an engineering marvel. Equipped with a color television camera able to send images back to Earth via satellite, it traveled about 10 mph, carried four times its own weight and had woven piano-wire mesh-like wheels to negotiate the strange lunar surface. An LRV traveled to the moon folded up and stuffed into a small storage space on the side of the Lunar Module on Apollo missions 15, 16 and 17.

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle had a mass of 210 kg and was designed to hold a payload of an additional 490 kg on the lunar surface. The frame was 3.1 meters long with a wheelbase of 2.3 meters. The maximum height was 1.14 meters. The frame was made of aluminum alloy 2219 tubing welded assemblies and consisted of a 3 part chassis which was hinged in the center so it could be folded up and hung in the Lunar Module quad 1 bay. It had two side-by-side foldable seats made of tubular aluminum with nylon webbing and aluminum floor panels. An armrest was mounted between the seats, and each seat had adjustable footrests and a velcro seatbelt. A large mesh dish antenna was mounted on a mast on the front center of the rover. The suspension consisted of a double horizontal wishbone with upper and lower torsion bars and a damper unit between the chassis and upper wishbone. Fully loaded the LRV had a ground clearance of 36 cm.

    The wheels consisted of a spun aluminum hub and an 81.8 cm diameter, 23 cm wide tire made of zinc coated woven 0.083 cm diameter steel strands attached to the rim and discs of formed aluminum. Titanium chevrons covered 50% of the contact area to provide traction. Inside the tire was a 64.8 cm diameter bump stop frame to protect the hub. Dust guards were mounted above the wheels. Each wheel had its own electric drive, a DC series wound 0.25 hp motor capable of 10,000 rpm, attached to the wheel via an 80:1 harmonic drive, and a mechanical brake unit. Maneuvering capability was provided through the use of front and rear steering motors. Each series wound DC steering motor was capable of 0.1 hp. Both sets of wheels would turn in opposite directions, giving a steering radius of 3.1 meters, or could be decoupled so only one set would be used for steering. Power was provided by two 36-volt silver-zinc potassium hydroxide non-rechargeable batteries with a capacity of 121 amp-hr. These were used to power the drive and steering motors and also a 36 volt utility outlet mounted on front of the LRV to power the communications relay unit or the TV camera. Passive thermal controls kept the batteries within an optimal temperature range.

    A T-shaped hand controller situated between the two seats controlled the four drive motors, two steering motors and brakes. Moving the stick forward powered the LRV forward, left and right turned the vehicle left or right, pulling backwards activated the brakes. Activating a switch on the handle before pulling back would put the LRV into reverse. Pulling the handle all the way back activated a parking brake. The control and display modules were situated in front of the handle and gave information on the speed, heading, pitch, and power and temperature levels. Navigation was based on continuously recording direction and distance through use of a directional gyro and odometer and inputting this data to a computer which would keep track of the overall direction and distance back to the LM. There was also a Sun-shadow device which could give a manual heading based on the direction of the Sun, using the fact that the Sun moved very slowly in the sky. The image at left shows a diagram of the layout of the control and display module, the Sun-shadow device is at top center between the heading and speed readouts.

    Deployment of the LRV from the LM quad 1 by the astronauts was achieved with a system of pulleys and braked reels using ropes and cloth tapes. The rover was folded and stored in quad 1 with the underside of the chassis facing out. One astronaut would climb the egress ladder on the LM and release the rover, which would then be slowly tilted out by the second astronaut on the ground through the use of reels and tapes. As the rover was let down from the bay most of the deployment was automatic. The rear wheels folded out and locked in place and when they touched the ground the front of the rover could be unfolded, the wheels deployed, and the entire frame let down to the surface by pulleys. The rover components locked into place upon opening. Cabling, pins, and tripods would then be removed and the seats and footrests raised.

    The Lunar Roving Vehicles gave the astronauts the ability to do three times the amount of work done on the earlier voyages. The battery-powered vehicles operated faultlessly in temperatures ranging from minus 200 to more than 200 degrees Fahrenheit. After the Apollo program ended, the moon cars were left parked on the surface, awaiting the next generation of astronauts. The legacy of the LRV, however, extended back to Earth, where its technology helped evolve the motorized wheelchairs that today provide many people with a way of negotiating around this world.

    First launch: 	July 26, 1971
    Classification: 	Moon-exploration vehicle
    Weight: 	462 pounds
    Payload: 	1,600 pounds
    Length: 	10 feet 2 inches
    Width (to center of wheels): 	6 feet
    Wheelbase: 	90 inches
    Range: 	57 miles
    Power: 	Two 36-volt batteries powering four 1/4-horsepower electric motors (one at each
    wheel)
    Accommodation:	2 astronauts
    

    Apollo 15:

    Apollo 15 was the fourth mission in which humans walked on the lunar surface and returned to Earth. On 30 July 1971 two astronauts (Apollo 15 Commander David R. Scott and LM pilot James B. Irwin) landed in the Hadley Rille/Apennines region of the Moon in the Lunar Module (LM) while the Command and Service Module (CSM) (with CM pilot Alfred M. Worden) continued in lunar orbit. During their stay on the Moon, the astronauts set up scientific experiments, took photographs, and collected lunar samples. The LM took off from the Moon on 2 August and the astronauts returned to Earth on 7 August.

    Apollo 15 launched on 26 July 1971 at 13:34:00 UT (9:34:00 a.m. EDT) on Saturn V SA-510 from Pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center. The spacecraft was inserted into Earth orbit at 13:45:44 UT and translunar injection took place at 16:30:03 UT. The CSM separated from the S-IVB stage at 16:56:24 UT and docked with the LM at 17:07:49 UT. The S-IVB stage was released and burns at 19:22 UT and 23:34 UT sent the stage into a lunar impact trajectory. (It impacted the lunar surface on 29 July at 20:58:42.9 UT at 1.51 S, 11.81 W with a velocity of 2.58 km/s at a 62 degree angle from the horizontal.) A short was discovered in the service propulsion system and contingency procedures were developed for using the engine. A mid-course correction was performed on 27 July at 18:14:22 UT and another on 29 July at 15:05:15. During cruise it was discovered that the LM range/range-rate exterior glass cover had broken and a small water leak had developed in the CM requiring repair and clean-up. The SIM door was jettisoned at 15:40 UT and lunar orbit insertion took place at 20:05:47 UT. The descent orbit maneuver was executed at 00:13:49 UT on 30 July.

    Scott and Irwin entered the LM and the LM-CSM undocking maneuver was initiated at 17:48 UT but undocking did not take place. Worden found a loose umbilical plug and reconnected it, allowing the LM to separate from the CSM at 18:13:30 UT. The LM fired its descent engine at 22:04:09 UT and landed at 22:16:29 UT on 30 July 1971 in the Mare Imbrium region at the foot of the Apennine mountain range at 26.1 N, 3.6 E. Scott and Irwin made three moonwalk EVAs totaling 18 hours, 35 minutes. During this time they covered 27.9 km, collected 76.8 kg of rock and soil samples, took photographs, and set up the ALSEP and performed other scientific experiments. This was the first mission which employed the Lunar Roving Vehicle which was used to explore regions within 5 km of the LM landing site. After the final EVA Scott performed a televised demonstration of a hammer and feather falling at the same rate in the lunar vacuum. The CSM remained in a slightly elliptical orbit from which Worden performed scientific experiments.

    The LM lifted off from the Moon at 17:11:22 UT on 2 August after 66 hours, 55 minutes on the lunar surface. After the LM docked with the CSM at 19:09:47 UT the lunar samples and other equipment were transferred from the LM. Experiments were performed from orbit over the next day. The LM was jettisoned at 01:04:14 UT on 4 August, after a one orbit delay to ensure LM and CSM hatches were completely sealed. The LM impacted the Moon on 4 August 03:03:37.0 UT at 26.36 N, 0.25 E, 93 km west of the Apollo 15 ALSEP site, with an estimated impact velocity of 1.7 km/s at an angle of ~3.2 degrees from horizontal. After Apollo 15 underwent an orbit-shaping maneuver the scientific subsatellite was spring-launched from the SM SIM bay at 20:13:19 UT on 4 August into a 102.0 x 141.3 km lunar orbit. Transearth injection began on the next orbit with a 2 minute, 21 second main engine burn at 21:22:45 UT. On 5 August, Worden carried out the first deep space EVA when he exited the CM and made three trips to the SIM bay at the rear of the SM to retrieve film cannisters and check the equipment. Total EVA time was 38 minutes, 12 seconds. The CM separated from the SM at 20:18:00 UT on 7 August. During descent, one of the three main parachutes failed to open fully, resulting in a descent velocity of 35 km/hr (21.8 mph), 4.5 km/hr (2.8 mph) faster than planned. Apollo 15 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 7 August 1971 at 20:45:53 UT (4:45:53 p.m. EDT) after a mission elapsed time of 295 hrs, 11 mins, 53 secs. The splashdown point was 26 deg 7 min N, 158 deg, 8 min W, 330 miles north of Honolulu, Hawaii and 9.8 km (6.1 mi) from the recovery ship USS Okinawa.

    The primary mission goals of exploration of the Hadley-Appenine region, deployment of the ALSEP and other scientific experiments, collection of lunar samples, surface photography, and photography and other scientific experiments from orbit, and engineering evaluation of new Apollo equipment, particularly the rover, were achieved.


    Apollo 16:

    Apollo 16 was the fifth mission in which humans walked on the lunar surface and returned to Earth. On 21 April 1972 two astronauts (Apollo 16 Commander John W. Young and LM pilot Charles M. Duke, Jr.) landed in the Descartes region of the Moon in the Lunar Module (LM) while the Command and Service Module (CSM) (with CM pilot Thomas K. Mattingly, II) continued in lunar orbit. During their stay on the Moon, the astronauts set up scientific experiments, took photographs, and collected lunar samples. The LM took off from the Moon on 24 April and the astronauts returned to Earth on 27 April.

    Apollo 16 launched on 16 April 1972 at 17:54:00 (12:54:00 p.m. EST) on Saturn V SA-511 from Pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center. (The launch was postponed from the originally scheduled date, March 17, because of a docking ring jettison malfunction.) The spacecraft entered Earth parking orbit at 18:05:56 UT and translunar injection took place at 20:27:37 UT. The CSM and S-IVB stage separated at 20:58:59 UT and CSM-LM docking was achieved at 21:15:53 UT. The S-IVB stage was released into a lunar impact trajectory, but due to an earlier problem with the auxiliary propulsion system (APS) helium regulators, which resulted in continuous venting and loss of helium, the second APS burn could not be made. Tracking of the S-IVB was lost on 17 April at 21:03 UT due to a transponder failure. (The S-IVB stage impacted the Moon on 19 April at 21:02:04 UT at 1.3 N, 23.8 W with a velocity of 2.5 to 2.6 km/s at a 79 degree angle from the horizontal, as estimated from the Apollo 12, 14 and 16 seismic station data.) A mid-course correction was performed at 00:33:01 UT on 18 April. During translunar coast a CSM navigation problem was discovered in which a false indication would cause loss of inertial reference, this was solved by a real-time change in the computer program. The SIM door was jettisoned on 19 April at 15:57:00 UT and lunar orbit insertion took place at 20:22:28 UT. Two revolutions later the orbit was lowered to one with a perilune of 20 km.

    At 15:24 UT on 20 April Young and Duke entered the LM. The LM separated from the CSM at 18:08:00 UT, but the LM descent was delayed almost 6 hours due to a malfunction in the yaw gimbal servo loop on the CSM which caused oscillations in the service propulsion system (SPS). Engineers determined that the problem would not seriously affect CSM steering and the mission was allowed to continue with the LM descent. The LM landed at 02:23:35 UT on 21 April in the Descartes highland region just north of the crater Dolland at 9.0 S, 15.5 E. Young and Duke made three moonwalk EVAs totaling 20 hours, 14 minutes. During this time they covered 27 km using the Lunar Roving Vehicle, collected 94.7 kg of rock and soil samples, took photographs, and set up the ALSEP and other scientific experiments. Other experiments were also performed from orbit in the CSM during this time.

    The LM lifted off from the Moon at 01:25:48 UT on 24 April after 71 hours, 2 minutes on the lunar surface. After the LM docked with the CSM at 03:35:18 UT the lunar samples and other equipment were transferred from the LM and the LM was jettisoned at 20:54:12 UT on 24 April. The LM began tumbling, apparently due to an open circuit breaker in the guidance and navigation system. As a result the planned deorbit and lunar impact could not be attempted. The LM remained in lunar orbit with an estimated lifetime of one year. The instrument boom which carried the orbital mass spectrometer would not retract and was jettisoned. Because of earlier problems with the SPS yaw gimbal servo loop the mission was shortened by one day. The orbital shaping maneuver was canceled, and the subsatellite was spring-launched at 21:56:09 UT into an elliptical orbit with a lifetime of one month, rather than the planned one-year orbit. Transearth injection began at 02:15:33 UT on 25 April. On 25 April at 20:43 UT Mattingly began a cislunar EVA to retrieve camera film from the SIM bay and inspect instruments, two trips taking a total of 1 hour, 24 minutes. The CM separated from the SM on 27 April at 19:16:33 UT. Apollo 16 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 27 April 1972 at 19:45:05 UT (2:45:05 p.m. EST) after a mission elapsed time of 265 hrs, 51 mins, 5 secs. The splashdown point was 0 deg 43 min S, 156 deg 13 min W, 215 miles southeast of Christmas Island and 5 km (3 mi) from the recovery ship USS Ticonderoga.

    The primary mission goals of inspecting, surveying, and sampling materials in the Descartes region, emplacement and activation of surface experiments, conducting inflight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit, engineering evaluation of spacecraft and equipment, and performance of zero-gravity experiments were achieved despite the mission being shortened by one day.


    Apollo 17:

    Apollo 17 was the sixth and last Apollo mission in which humans walked on the lunar surface. On 11 December 1972 two astronauts (Apollo 16 Commander Eugene A. Cernan and LM pilot Harrison H. Schmitt, the first scientist on the Moon) landed in the Taurus-Littrow region of the Moon in the Lunar Module (LM) while the Command and Service Module (CSM) (with CM pilot Ronald E. Evans) continued in lunar orbit. During their stay on the Moon, the astronauts set up scientific experiments, took photographs, and collected lunar samples. The LM took off from the Moon on 14 December and the astronauts returned to Earth on 19 December.

    Apollo 17 lifted off at 05:33:00 UT (12:33:00 a.m. EST) on 7 December 1972 after a 2 hour, 40 minute delay due to a malfunction of a launch sequencer. Launch was on Saturn V SA-512 from Pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center and was the first nighttime launch of an Apollo. The spacecraft began Earth parking orbit at 05:44:53 UT and translunar injection took place at 08:45:37 UT. The CSM separated from the S-IVB at 09:15:29 UT and CSM-LM docking took place at 09:29:45 UT. The S-IVB was released at 10:18 UT into a lunar impact trajectory. (It impacted the lunar surface on 10 December at 20:32:42.3 UT at 4.21 S, 12.31 W with a velocity of 2.55 km/s at a 55 degree angle from the horizontal.) A single mid-course correction requiring a 1.6 second burn of the Service Propulsion System (SPS) was made at 17:03:00 UT on 8 December. On December 10 at 15:05:40 UT the SIM bay door was jettisoned and a 398 second burn of the SPS was initiated at 19:47:23 UT to insert Apollo 17 into lunar orbit. Approximately 4 hours 20 minutes later another maneuver lowered the orbit to a perilune of 28 km. At 14:35 UT on 11 December Cernan and Schmitt entered the LM.

    The LM separated from the CSM at 17:20:56 UT on 11 December 1972 and reduced its orbit to 11.5 km perilune at 18:55:42 UT. The descent burn took place at 19:43 UT and the LM landed at 19:54:57 UT on the southeastern rim of Mare Serenitatis in a valley at Taurus-Littrow, at 20.2 N, 30.8 E. Cernan and Schmitt made three moonwalk extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) totaling 22 hours, 4 minutes. During this time they covered 30 km using the Lunar Roving Vehicle, collected 110.5 kg of lunar samples, took photographs, and set up the ALSEP and performed other scientific experiments. Evans performed experiments from orbit in the CSM during this time.

    The LM lifted off from the Moon at 22:54:37 UT on 14 December after 75 hours on the lunar surface. After the LM docked with the CSM at 01:10:15 UT on 15 December the lunar samples and other equipment were transferred from the LM and the LM was jettisoned at 04:51:31 UT. The LM impacted the Moon at 06:50:20.8 UT at 19.96 N, 30.50 E, approximately 15 km from the Apollo 17 landing site, with an estimated impact velocity of 1.67 km/s at an angle ~4.9 degrees from horizontal. After another 1 1/2 days in lunar orbit, transearth injection took place at 23:35:09 UT on 16 December. On 17 December at 20:27 UT Evans began a cislunar spacewalk EVA consisting of three trips to the SM SIM bay to collect camera and lunar sounder film over a period of 67 minutes. The CM and SM separated at 18:56:49 UT on 19 December. Apollo 17 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 19 December 1972 at 19:24:59 UT (2:24:59 p.m. EST) after a mission elapsed time of 301 hrs, 51 mins, 59 secs. The splashdown point was 17 deg 53 min S, 166 deg 7 min W, 350 nautical miles SE of the Samoan Islands and 6.5 km (4 mi) from the recovery ship USS Ticonderoga.

    The primary mission goals of investigating the lunar surface and environment in the Taurus-Littrow region, emplacing and activating surface experiments, performing experiments in lunar orbit, obtaining and returning lunar surface samples, and enhancing the capability for future astronaut lunar exploration were achieved.


    Apollo 16 Landing

    Apollo 14 Ascent

    Apollo 17 Ascent

    Flag on Moon

    Working on Moon

    Astronaut Falls

    Walking on Moon

    Rover

    
    THE MANNED FLIGHTS
     
    Apollo 7
    Saturn 1B
    October 11-22, 1968
    Walter M. Schirra, Jr.
    Donn F. Eisele
    R. Walter Cunningham
     
    10 days, 20 hours
    163 Earth orbits. First manned CSM operations in
    lunar landing program. First live TV from manned
    spacecraft.
     
     
    Apollo 8
    Saturn V
    December 21-27, 1968
    Frank Borman
    James A. Lovell, Jr.
    William A. Anders
     
    06 days, 03 hours
    In lunar orbit 20 hours, with 10 orbits. First
    manned lunar orbital mission. Support facilities
    tested. Photographs taken of Earth and Moon.
    Live TV broadcasts.
     
     
    Apollo 9 (Gumdrop and Spider)
    Saturn V
    March 03-13, 1969
    James A. McDivitt
    David R. Scott
    Russell L. Schweickart
     
    10 days, 01 hour
    First manned flight of all lunar hardware in
    Earth orbit. Schweickark performed 37 minutes
    EVA. Human reactions to space and weightlessness
    tested in 152 orbits. First manned flight of
    lunar module.
     
     
    Apollo 10 (Charlie Brown and Snoopy)
    Saturn V
    May 18-26, 1969
    Eugene A. Cernan
    John W. Young
    Thomas P. Stafford
     
    08 days, 03 minutes
    Dress rehearsal for Moon landing. First manned
    CSM/LM operations in cislunar and lunar environ-
    ment; simulation of first lunar landing profile.
    In lunar orbit 61.6 hours, with 31 orbits. LM
    taken to within 15,243 m (50,000 ft) of lunar
    surface. First live color TV from space. LM
    ascent stage jettisoned in orbit.
     
     
    Apollo 11 (Columbia and Eagle)
    Saturn V
    July 16-24, 1969
    Neil A. Armstrong
    Michael Collins
    Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr.
     
    08 days, 03 hours, 18 minutes
    First manned lunar landing mission and lunar
    surface EVA. "HOUSTON, TRANQUILITY BASE HERE.
    THE EAGLE HAS LANDED."--July 20,
    
    Landing site: Sea of Tranquility.
    Landing Coordinates:  0.71 degrees North, 23.63 degrees East
    
    1 EVA of 02 hours, 31 minutes. Flag and in-
    struments deployed; unveiled plaque on the
    LM descent stage with inscription: "Here Men
    From Planet Earth First Set Foot Upon the Moon.
    July 1969 A.D. We Came In Peace For All
    Mankind." Lunar surface stay time 21.6 hours;
    59.5 hours in lunar orbit, with 30 orbits. LM
    ascent stage left in lunar orbit. 20kg (44 lbs)
    of material gathered.
     
    Apollo 12 (Yankee Clipper and Intrepid)
    Saturn V
    November 14-24, 1969
    Charles Conrad, Jr.
    Richard F. Gordon, Jr.
    Alan L. Bean
     
    10 days, 04 hours, 36 minutes
    Landing site: Ocean of Storms.
    3.04 degrees South, 23.42 degrees West
    
    Retrieved parts of the unmanned Surveyor 3, which had 
    landed on the Moon in April 1967. Apollo Lunar Surface
    Experiments Package (ALSEP) deployed. Lunar
    surface stay-time, 31.5 hours; in lunar orbit
    89 hours, with 45 orbits. LM descent stage
    impacted on Moon. 34kg (75 lbs) of material
    gathered.
     
     
    Apollo 13 (Odyssey and Aquarius)
    Saturn V
    April 11-17, 1970
    James A. Lovell, Jr.
    John L. Swigert, Jr.
    Fred W. Haise, Jr.
     
    05 days, 22.9 hours
    Third lunar landing attempt. Mission aborted
    after rupture of service module oxygen tank.
    Classed as "successful failure" because of
    experience in rescuing crew. Spent upper stage
    successfully impacted on the Moon.
     
     
    Apollo 14 (Kitty Hawk and Antares)
    Saturn V
    January 31-Febraury 09, 1971
    Alan B. Shepard, Jr.
    Stuart A. Roosa
    Edgar D. Mitchell
     
    09 days
    Landing site: Fra Mauro. 
    Landing Coordinates: 3.65 degrees south, 17.48 degrees West
    
    ALSEP and other instruments deployed. Lunar surface 
    stay-time, 33.5 hours; 67 hours in lunar orbit, with 34
    orbits. 2 EVAs of 09 hours, 25 minutes. Third
    stage impacted on Moon. 42 kg (94 lbs) of
    materials gathered, using hand cart for first
    time to transport rocks.
     
     
    Apollo 15 (Endeavor and Falcon)
    Saturn V
    July 26-August 07, 1971
    David R. Scott
    James B. Irwin
    Alfred M. Worden
     
    12 days, 17 hours, 12 minutes
    Landing site: Hadley-Apennine region near
    Apennine Mountains.
    Landing Coordinates: 26.08 degrees North, 3.66 degrees East
    
     3 EVAs of 10 hours, 36 minutes. 
    Worden performed 38 minutes EVA on
    way back to Earth. First to carry orbital
    sensors in service module of CSM. ALSEP de-
    ployed. Scientific payload landed on Moon
    doubled. Improved spacesuits gave increased
    mobility and stay-time. Lunar surface stay-
    time, 66.9 hours. Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV),
    electric-powered, 4-wheel drive car, traversed
    total 27.9 km (17 mi). In lunar orbit 145 hours,
    with 74 orbits. Small sub-satellite left in
    lunar orbit for first time. 6.6 kgs (169 lbs) of
    material gathered.
     
     
    Apollo 16 (Casper and Orion)
    Saturn V
    April 16-27, 1972
    John W. Young
    Thomas K. Mattingly II
    Charles M. Duke, Jr.
     
    11 days, 01 hour, 51 minutes
    Landing site: Descartes Highlands. 
    Landing Coordinates:  8.97 degrees South, 15.51 degrees East
    
    First study of highlands area. Selected surface experiments
    deployed, ultraviolet camera/spectrograph used
    for first time on Moon, and LRV used for second
    time. Lunar surface stay-time, 71 hours; in
    lunar orbit 126 hours, with 64 orbits. Mattingly
    performed 01 hour in-flight EVA. 95.8 kg
    (213 lbs) of lunar samples collected.
     
    Apollo 17 (America and Challenger)
    Saturn V
    December 07-19, 1972
    Eugene A. Cernan
    Ronald E. Evans
    Harrison H. Schmitt
     
    12 days, 13 hours, 52 minutes
    Last lunar landing mission. Landing site:
    Taurus-Littrow, highlands and valley area. 
    Landing Coordinates:  20.16 degrees North, 30.77 degrees East
    
    3 EVAs of 22 hours, 04 minutes. Evans performed
    trans-Earth EVA lasting 01 hour 06 minutes.
    First scientist-astronaut to land on Moon,
    Schmitt. Sixth automated research station set
    up.  LRV traverse total 30.5 km. Lunar surface
    stay-time, 75 hours. In lunar orbit 17 hours.
    110.4 kg (243 lbs) of material gathered.
    

    Questions:

  • Describe the Apollo mission profile.
  • What were the science goals of Apollo?
  • What was the lunar rover?
  • Describe the Apollo 13 accident.