Synchrotron radiation is electromagnetic energy emitted by charged particles (e.g., electrons and ions) that are moving at speeds close to that of light when their paths are altered, as by a magnetic field. It is so called because particles moving at such speeds in a variety of particle accelerator that is known as a synchrotron produce electromagnetic radiation of this sort.
Many kinds of astronomical objects have been found to emit synchrotron radiation as well. High-energy electrons spiraling through the lines of force of the magnetic field around the planet Jupiter, for example, give off synchrotron radiation at radio wavelengths. Synchrotron radiation at such wavelengths and at those of visible and ultraviolet light is generated by electrons moving in the magnetic field associated with the supernova remnant known as the Crab Nebula. Radio emissions of the synchrotron variety also have been detected from other supernova remnants in the Milky Way Galaxy and from extragalactic objects called quasars.
Synchrotron radiation characteristically is highly polarized and continuous. Its intensity and frequency are directly related to the strength of the magnetic field and the energy of the charged particles affected by the field. Accordingly, the stronger the magnetic field and the higher the energy of the particles, the greater the intensity and frequency of the emitted radiation. Synchrotron radiation is not dependent on the temperature of a given astronomical source; a relatively cool object can release substantial amounts of electromagnetic energy in this form. Synchrotron radiation is thus often termed nonthermal radiation.
Excerpt from the Encyclopedia Britannica without permission.